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Hydrogels for Osteochondral
Tissue Engineering
Journal of Biomedical

(March 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Activity
& Transdermal Delivery
of GHK Peptide
Journal of Peptide Science
(March 2020)
Pulsed Glow Discharge
to GHK-Cu Determination
International Journal
of Mass Spectrometry

(March 2020)
Protective Effects of GHK-Cu
in Pulmonary Fibrosis
Life Sciences
(January 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Benefits
of GHK-Cu Stimulating
Skin Basement Membrane
International Journal
of Molecular Sciences

(January 2020)
Structural Analysis
Molecular Dynamics of
Skin Protective
TriPeptide GHK
Journal of Molecular Structure
(January 2020)
In Vitro / In Vivo Studies
pH-sensitive GHK-Cu in
Superabsorbent Polymer
GHK Enhances
Stem Cells Osteogenesis
Acta Biomaterialia
Antibacterial GHK-Cu
Nanoparticles for
Wound Healing
Particle & Particle (2019)
Effect of GHK-Cu
on Stem Cells and
Relevant Genes
OBM Geriatrics
GHK Alleviates
Neuronal Apoptosis Due
to Brain Hemorrhage
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Endogenous Antioxidant
International Journal of Pathophysiology and Pharmacology (2018)
Regenerative and
Protective Actions of
GHK-Cu Peptide
International Journal of
Molecular Sciences
Skin Regenerative and
Anti-Cancer Actions
of Copper Peptides
GHK-Cu Accelerates
Scald Wound Healing
Promoting Angiogenesis
Wound Repair and

GHK Peptide Inhibits
Pulmonary Fibrosis
by Suppressing TGF-B1
Frontiers in Pharmacology
Skin Cancer Therapy
with Copper Peptides
The Effect of Human
Peptide GHK Relevant to
Nervous System Function
and Cognitive Decline
Brain Sciences (2017)
Effects of Tripeptide
GHK in Pain-Induced
Aggressive Behavior
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
GHK-Cu Elicits
In Vitro Alterations
in Extracellular Matrix
Am Journal of Respiratory
and Critical Care Medicine

Selected Biomarkers &
Copper Compounds
Scientific Reports

GHK-Cu on Collagen,
Elastin, and Facial Wrinkles
Journal of Aging Science
Tri-Peptide GHK-Cu
and Acute Lung Injury

Effect of GHK Peptide
on Pain Sensitivity
Experimental Pharmacology

New Data of the
Cosmeceutical and
TriPeptide GHK
SOFW Journal
GHK Peptide as a
Natural Modulator of
Multiple Cellular Pathways
in Skin Regeneration
BioMed Research (2015)
Resetting Skin Genome
Back to Health
Naturally with GHK
Textbook of Aging Skin
GHK-Cu May Prevent
Oxidative Stress in Skin
by Regulating Copper and
Modifying Expression of
Numerous Antioxidant Genes Cosmetics (2015)
GHK Increases
TGF-B1 in
Human Fibroblasts

Acta Poloniae

The Human Skin Remodeling Peptide Induces Anti-Cancer
Expression and DNA Repair Analytical Oncology
Resetting the
Human Genome to Health
BioMed Research
Enhanced Tropic Factor Secretion of Mesenchymal
Stem Cells with GHK
Acta Biomater
Anxiolytic (Anti-Anxiety)
Effects of GHK Peptide
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
Lung Destruction and
its Reversal by GHK
Genome Medicine
TriPeptide GHK Induces
Programmed Cell Death
of Neuroblastoma
Journal of Biotechnology
Stem Cell
Recovering Effect
of GHK in Skin
Peptide Science
Skin Penetration of
Copper Tripeptide in Vitro
Journal of International
Inflammation Research
Possible Therapeutics
for Colorectal Cancer
Journal of Clinical and
Experimental Metastasis
Methods of Controlling
Differentiation and
Proliferation of Stem Cells
Effects of
Copper Tripeptide
on Irradiated Fibroblasts
American Medical Association
Avoid Buying Fake Copper Peptides Dangerous

Scar Reduction with Hydroxy Acids, Abrasion, Needling and Copper Peptides

Triad of Scar Reduction Techniques that Work

Methods for the reduction of scars and skin blemishes are usually marginally effective, painful, expensive, and often produce further scars during the procedure.

The combination of hydroxy acids, abrasion, needling, amd copper peptides often produce surprisingly effective reduction of the appearances of various scars and skin blemishes. This method is low cost, painless, but may take several months to achieve a good cosmetic result.

Hydroxy acids, such as salicylic acid and glycolic acid, are widely used as exfoliating agents and for skin peels. They remove dead skin cells and also loosen and slowly dissolve skin lesions such as acne scars, keloid scars, surgical scars, burn scars, moles, skin tags, stretch marks, age spots, and sun damage marks.

The secret of hydroxy acid actions is that your healthy, normal skin is very tough and has a high resistance to such acids. In contrast, most skin lesions have less structural integrity and are more easily broken down by the acids. The repeated use of such acids over periods of a month or longer slowly dissolves most skin lesions. This is essentially a modification of normal skin peel techniques where a very strong hydroxy acid (or other peeling agents such as TCA or phenol) are used as skin peels. Such methods work very well under perfect circumstances. However, hydroxy acids can be highly irritating if the subsequent regenerative response of the skin is inadequate to fully heal the acid-treated skin. If there is too little skin rebuilding, then the peeling agent may cause further scarring or inflammation.

The use of Copper-Peptides after hydroxy acids, abrasion, and needling supplies the skin with nutritional copper. Studies on wound healing found that that tissue copper rises during the healing process. But if the level of tissue copper is too low, then healing is impaired and scars remain on the wound. So, by repeated application of a hydroxy acid, you can slowly dissolve away the skin blemish and use Copper-Peptides to aid the skin's functions. This process is repeated once daily or twice daily and an improvement should be noted in a month, but obtaining a cosmetically satisfying result may take several months. Going slow is better than trying to rush the process. Skin can only rebuild so fast.

This method can also be used with traditional skin renewal methods such as lasers, deep peels, and dermabrasion. These more vigorous procedures rapidly remove any scar tissue. But subsequent problems arise if the skin fails to heal rapidly. This can produce inflamed, reddish skin for up to a year before healing is complete. In this case, supplying the skin with nutritional copper can facilitate the skin post-procedure recovery.

Featured Topics

Layers of Damage - How to Reduce Scars

1. Practical Advice for Scar REduction

2. THE BALANCING ACT: Reducing the Appearance of Scars and Blemishes

3. NEW PATENT: Dr. Pickart US Patent on Skin Remodeling (Issued May 22, 2012)

4. Recovery After Chemical Peels

5. General Information on Scars and Skin Blemishes

6. Post Procedure Skin Recovery

7. Stretch Marks and Reducing their Appearance

8. Sun Damage and Sun Damage Marks

9: The Art & Science of Skin NeedlinG - WHAT TO USE AFTER MICRONEEDLING



Practical Solutions for Scar Reduction with Copper Peptides

Reducing Acne Scars and Pitted Scars

1. In the morning, wipe your face with a 2 percent salicylic acid pad (available at drugstores).

2. After the salicylic acid pad, apply a copper peptide serum that also contains a small amount of salicylic acid and leave it on. Start with a maximum of four drops daily, and then slowly increase the amount. If you have sensitive skin, start with GHK copper, which is the mildest form.

3. In the evening, apply a light amount of a mix of lactic acid and salicylic acid in a supportive oil-free liquid) and leave it on.

4. For pitted scars some people use stronger hydroxy acids and/or retinoic acid at night.

5. About every two weeks, use pore-cleansing strips (available at drugstores) on acne-prone areas. Be careful not to overuse the strips to the point of irritation.

6. Some people use this method one day and anti-acne products on alternate days.

7. Anti-acne products can be somewhat drying to the skin. Biological healing oils, such as emu oil, work well as moisturizing agents and rarely increase breakouts.

• Reduction of Skin Tags

1. In the morning, apply a copper peptide serum very lightly on the skin tag.

2. In the evening, apply a hydroxy acid (preferably 10% leave-on acid) to the tag.

3. On alternative evenings, you can apply a stronger copper peptide topical cream as a spot treatment on the area.

TIP: Sometimes salicylic acid can irritate the skin tag, and it can become reddened. If this happens, you may want to reduce the frequency of application, but try to find a schedule that allows you to keep applying the cream on a regular basis.

• Reduction of Stretch Marks

1. In the morning, apply a moderate-to-very strong copper peptide cream to the stretch mark.

2. In the evening, apply a hydroxy acid (preferably 10% leave-on acid) to the stretch mark.

3. On alternative evenings, apply another application of the SRCP cream of your choice.

• Reduction of Sun Damage

1. In the morning, apply a light amount of a copper peptide serum to the sun-damage mark. If you have sensitive skin, start with GHK copper which is very gentle on sun-damaged skin.

2. In the evening, apply a hydroxy acid cream lightly on the sun-damaged area.

3. On alternative evenings, you may want to apply a moderate-to-very strong copper peptide cream on the area of sun damage. Start with a light application. For the sensitive breast and décolletage area, use a milder copper peptide product designed for this area.

CLICK HERE to find out more about Suntan Science - Truth, Myths, and Science of Sun Health

• Reduction of Hyperpigmentation OR Hypopigmentation

1. If you have oily-to-combination skin, apply a strong copper peptide serum in the morning and a 10% hydroxy acid at night. Start the products lightly, and then slowly increase the amount over time.

2. If you have dry-to-normal skin, use a copper peptide cream with retinol in the morning and a leave-on hydroxy acid at night.

3. If you are not getting enough effect, try a strong copper peptide product, and use it consistently.

4. If you still are not getting enough of an effect, then slowly work up to a stronger percentage hydroxy acid product.

5. Microdermabrasion sponges or cloths often work well on reducing scar tissue.

6. Daily supplements of 500 mg Vitamin C, 1 gram MSM, 1 gram of Flaxseed Oil, and 500 mg of Borage Oil also help skin rebuilding.

7. Stress inhibits skin repair and the rate of scar reduction, as it increases blood cortisol. DHEA (75 to 100 mgs daily) may help block the cortisol effect and stimulate skin repair. But only take DHEA for short periods of time, such as one month, if you are experiencing great stress.

8. Regular aerobic exercise increases blood flow into the skin and speeds skin repair and scar reduction. According to recent studies, it also causes the DNA to produce more proteins that are characteristic of young skin, so you get a double benefit—faster healing and younger-looking skin.

NOTE: Skin color will usually revert to its pre-damage color.

•A "How-To" Regimen for Copper Peptides and Skin Needling

Many have had tremendous success using copper peptides with skin needling in three different ways:

OPTION 1 - Apply copper peptides before using the skin needling device.

OPTION 2 - Apply copper peptides very lightly after using the device.

OPTION 3 - Alternate: Use copper peptides on the days you do not use the skin needling device.

NOTE: Typically only a mild copper peptide is used along with skin needling devices. Use the method that fits best with your schedule and skin sensitivity. Test on a small area first.

For detailed information, see the article by Dr. Anna Margolina (a biologist and consultant to Dr. Loren Pickart): The Art & Science of Skin NeedlinG - WHAT TO USE AFTER MICRONEEDLING

Find Out More About the Real Science of Skin Care

Call Toll-Free 800-405-1912 - Weekdays - Best Time - 9 am to 6 pm, Pacific Time 
Or please send an email to Contact Loren Pickart, PhD

Skin Remodeling is the Key to Scar Reduction

Depressed Scars

The removal or reduction of scars, lesions, and stretch marks from the skin depends on a process called "skin remodeling". The skin is designed to heal wounds quickly to prevent blood loss and infection.

Scars are manufactured from a rapidly formed "collagen glue" that the body deposits into an injured area for protection and strength. In ideal skin healing, the wounded skin is rapidly closed, then the healed area is slowly reconstructed to remove the residual collagen scars and blend the skin area into nearby skin.

Scar collagen is removed and replaced with a mixture of skin cells and invisible collagen fibers. This skin remodeling may continue in a skin area for ten years. In children the remodeling rate is high and scars are usually rapidly removed from injured skin areas.

But as we reach adulthood, this rate diminishes and small scars may remain for years. One way to accelerate remodeling is to induce a small amount of controlled skin damage with a needle, laser, or other means, and then let the body repair processes rebuild the skin area.

Skin Remodeling, Scar Reduction, and Copper-Peptides

Research studies find that adequate tissue copper helps the process of skin remodeling by activating your skin's metalloproteinases that remove damaged proteins (sun as sun-damaged collagen and elastin) and scars. At the same time they help activate your skin's anti-proteases TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 that protect against excessive breakdown of protein. (Simeon et al, Life Sciences, 15, 2257-2265, 2000). They also reduce the skin's protection of the scar-producing factor TGF-beta. Interestingly, retinoic acid (retin-A) is often used for scar reduction but retinoic acid actually increases the production of the scar-producing TGF-beta. (McCormack, Nowak and Koch, Arch Plast Surg 3:28-32, 2001).

Animal studies suggest that increased copper also helps to (1) regenerate new collagen and elastin which improve skin firmness and elasticity, (2) increase the production of water holding glycosaminoglycans which is true moisturization, (3) improve the skin’s blood vessel microcirculation, (4) produce biochemical energy from nutrients in the body’s blood supply, (5) increase the natural defense mechanism against oxidative damage, and (6) repair damage to the protective skin barrier. For scientific references on these effects see: Copper-Peptide Regeneration.

As the skin is rebuilt and scars removed, the elastic properties of the skin pull it into a smooth surface.

Skin Exfoliation Using Salicylic Acid and Lactic Acid

Exfoliation Cycle

A famous dermatologist, the late Dr. Albert Kligman, said that BHAs (in particular salicylic) at concentrations of about 2% are better than AHAs for anti-aging and for skin exfoliation. Professor Kligman is well known in dermatology for his research on the anti-aging actions of retinoic acid (Retin-A). Results from Dr. Kligman's laboratory found that the outermost stratum corneum layer is renewed after applications of salicylic acid.

The BHA hydroxy acid loosens the damaged skin proteins and the Copper-Peptides help in the removal of the old, damaged proteins.

If you have allergies to salicylates (such as you cannot eat fruit), we recommend you obtain a alpha hydroxy acid (10% and at pH 4 or below).

On the other hand, many women say that Lactic Acid, which is naturally on your skin at low levels, is easier on their skin. Lactic acid up to 10% is fairly mild on skin. But lactic acids of 30 to 70% are used for skin peels.

When Scars Are Resistant

Stronger hydroxy acids will speed the scar reduction process. However, this increases the possibility of irritation or burns. 30% to 70% alpha hydroxy acids are effective but you should use these under the direction of a dermatologist or esthetician. Such stronger hydroxy acids can be obtained from Estheticians and Dermatologists at Spas and Clinics.

Balancing Act for Removing Scars

Comparison of Scar and Lesion Reduction Methods



(plus hydroxy acids,
abrasion, & needling)

$30 to $60
Low Cost
Ease of Use
One month
Mild skin irritation
Salicylic Acid
$30 to 60
Low Cost
Ease of Use
One month
Mild skin irritation
Retinoic Acid
$100 to $300
($50 to $100 products,
$50 to $200 dermatologist appointment)
Low Cost
Ease of Use
One month
Skin irritation can be severe
Plastic Sheets
$100 to $400 for plastic sheets -
$200 for dermatologist appointment
No pain
Two to four months
Modest results
Takes months
Scar Subcision
$300 to $1,000 dermatologist costs
Often works on severe localized scars
Two to four months
Laser Resurfacing
$1,000 to $4,000
Good with
skilled dermatologist
Two to four months
Painful local pigmentation,
More scarring
Deep Chemical Peels
$500 to $3,000
Good with
skilled dermatologist
Two to four months
Painful local pigmentation,
More scarring
Series of Milder
Chemical Peels Needed
$1,000 to $5,000
Very good results with experienced dermatologist
Two to four months
Less problems than deep chemical peels
$1,000 to $3,000
Good with
skilled dermatologist,
Sometimes good for deep scars
Two to four months
Painful local pigmentation,
More scarring Possible skin Infection


Scar Becomes Repaired and Removed

Questions or Advice?

Email Dr. Loren Pickart:

Call us at 1-800-405-1912 Monday through Friday (8 am to 6 pm) PST